Professor Roy Brouwer, University of Waterloo, Canada
Professor Roy Brouwer holds the University Research Chair in Water Resources Economics at the University of Waterloo, where he is also the Executive Director of the Water Institute. He is a visiting professor at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology in Zürich. He is furthermore member of the External Advisory Board of the Vienna Technical University Doctoral Program on Water Resource Systems and Editor-in-Chief of the Elsevier journal Water Resources and Economics. His main research interests are in water resource economics, in particular water resource valuation, hydro-economic modelling and water policy instruments.
Title: Towards Paying for Water Services
Payments for Watershed Services (PWS) are a promising new economic policy instrument. However, the factors that drive and explain their environmental performance are poorly understood. Existing reviews of PWS schemes and assessments of success and fail factors are mainly qualitative in nature. There is limited evidence of the impacts of PWS on sustainable levels of land-water management due to the absence of reliable longer-term scientific data and adequate cross-evaluation. In a global review of PWS schemes, key institutional- economic factors are identified that drive and explain the environmental performance of existing PWS schemes. Despite efforts to find quantitative information on their environmental performance, such empirical evidence is lacking in many of the studies on PWS schemes. International monitoring guidelines are needed to facilitate comparisons, identify success factors and support the future design of cost-effective PWS schemes.
Professor Edward McBean, University of Guelph, Canada
Professor McBean, Ph.D., P.Eng., P.E., FCAE, D.WRE., FEIC, FCSCE, FIAH, is a Professor of Water Resources Engineering, a University Research Chair in Water Security, and a former Canada Research Chair, Water Security, at the University of Guelph, Canada. Ed received his BASc from UBC, and his SM and Ph.D. from MIT, all in Civil Engineering. Ed is a Fellow of the Canadian Academy of Engineering and Diplomate, American Academy of Water Resources Engineering and American Society of Civil Engineers. He has published three books and more than 370 papers in the refereed journals, and recipient of a number of awards including Canada Research Chair in Water Security, K.Y. Lo Award for significant contributions at international level, the Tom Duc Thang award, and the Julian C. Smith Award.
Title: Targeting Key Coefficients to Identify Strategies for Managing Emerging Contaminants
The term ‘emerging contaminants’ refers to chemicals and pathogens that have been detected in drinking water at trace levels and for which the risk to human health is still unknown and/or not yet understood. Hence, the issue with emerging contaminants exists because there have been many situations where widespread acceptance of a chemical has occurred for its intended function, but that same chemical ends up causing unforeseen and unacceptable impacts to humans and the environment. Unfortunately, there are many such examples (DDT, PCBs, thalidomide, etc.).
The result is extremely challenging to assemble information as to the potential danger which may arise from some emerging contaminants. Instead, we must identify other strategies, and that will be the approach taken in this paper. More precisely, there will be two paths developed:
||Assess the approaches being utilized to assess source types of some emerging contaminants, including those of source characterization. Although this approach is proving difficult (e.g. for pharmaceuticals) the basis for some successes and some challenges will be described; and
||A second approach is based on use of key coefficients (e.g. octanol/water partition coefficient, adsorption coefficient, rate of biodegradation, etc.).
The merit of the second methodology, in particular, is to facilitate systematic thinking to provide insights regarding the fate and transport exposure pathway assessments of individual emerging contaminants, including the degree of attenuation and the potential for transformation to another media which may occur, based on the fundamental characteristics as mechanisms to provide useful insights as to the potential impacts to humans and the environment. A number of case studies will be described.
Professor Vijay P. Singh, Texas A&M University, United States
Professor V. P. Singh is a University Distinguished Professor, a Regents Professor, and Caroline and William N. Lehrer Distinguished Chair in Water Engineering at Texas A&M University. He received his B.S., M.S., Ph.D. and D.Sc. degrees in engineering. He is a registered professional engineer, a registered professional hydrologist, and an Honorary diplomate of ASCE-AAWRE. He has published more than 1100 journal articles; 28 textbooks; 67 edited reference books; 105 book chapters; and 315 conference papers in the area of hydrology and water resources. He has received more than 90 national and international awards, including three honorary doctorates. He is a member of 10 international science/engineering academies. He has served as President of the American Institute of Hydrology (AIH), Chair of Watershed Council of American Society of Civil Engineers, and is currently President-Elect of American Academy of Water Resources Engineers. He has served as editor-in-chief of three journals and two book series and serves on editorial boards of more than 25 journals and three book series.
Title: Copula-Entropy Theory for Multivariate Stochastic Modeling in Water Engineering
A multitude of processes in water and ecosystems engineering involve more than one random variable. For example, floods are characterized by peak, duration, volume, and inter-arrival time, which are all random in nature. Droughts are described by their severity, duration, inter-arrival time, and areal extent, which are all random. Extreme precipitation events are represented by their intensity, amount, duration, and inter-arrival time, which are all random. Inter-basin water transfer involves transfer of excess water from one basin (say, donor) to a water deficient basin (say, recipient). The transfer involves the volume of water, availability of water in both donor and recipient basins, duration of transfer, rate of transfer, and time interval between water transfers which are all random variables. Water quality entails pollutant load, duration for which the load is higher than the protection limits, and peak pollutant concentration, which are all random variables. Likewise, erosion in a basin may be characterized by sediment yield, number of erosion events, duration of events, intensity of events, and time-interval between two consecutive events, which are all random variables. Flooding in coastal watershed may be caused by the simultaneous occurrence of high precipitation and high tides where both precipitation and tide are random variables. There is a great variety of vegetation species in nature. The diversity of vegetation is important for the health of ecosystems. The areal proportion of different species, the number of species, and vegetation height are probabilistic and involve more than one dimension. Further, this space-time distribution of vegetation is impacted by climate change and the impact entails more than one dimension. If wind energy is considered then wind is characterized by its mean velocity, peak velocity, areal coverage, and duration which are random variables. Examples of processes involving more than one random variable abound in ecological engineering, hydrologic engineering, hydraulic engineering, environmental engineering, and water resources systems. There usually exists some degree of dependence among the random variables or at least among some of them. Often we are concerned with multivariate stochastic modeling and risk analysis of these processes that involve the derivation of probability distributions of the random variables considering the dependence structure among them. Nowadays, these stochastic processes can be modeled with the copula-entropy theory that has proven to be more flexible and accurate than the traditional approaches. The objective of this talk is to reflect on some recent advances made in the application of the copula-entropy theory and future challenges.
Professor Jun XIA, Wuhan University, China
Prof. Jun Xia is the academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and Chair Professor & Director, The Research Institute for Water Security (RIWS), Wuhan University, also Director, Center for Water Resources Research, CAS, and Distinguished Professor, Key Lab. of Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Processes, CAS. He has ample experiences on leading hydrology and water resources research, water managing and consulting jobs in China and international activities since 1987. He was severed as the President of International Water Resources Association (IWRA, 2009-2012), Vice President of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS, 2004-2007), Board Governor of World Water Council (WWC, 2009-2015), and Co-Chair, InterAcademy Council for Water Programme (IAC-WP), Co-Chair, China-Australia Center on Water Resources Research, and the member of Scientific Steering Committee for Global Water System Project (GWSP-SSC), Associated Editor, Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, ASCE and so on. Recently, he was appointed by IAHS President as Honorary Vice-President of IAHS, and Chair of the Working Group on Representation of Developing Countries (WGRDC) for IAHS, 2015-2019. He was awarded by “The International Prize for Outstanding Contributions to Water Management”, given by The Third World Centre for Water Management on October, 2011, and also awarded “2014’s International Hydrological Prize -Volker Medal”, given by IAHS, UNESCO and WMO on April 24, 2014；2017’s State Natural Science Award in China, and 2019’s IUGG Fellow.
Title: IAHS "Panta Rhei" and Case studies on Climate change & Urban Water in China
This presentation addresses the issue on IAHS new Paradigm, namely "Panta Rhei" (2013-2022), and the case studies on climate change & urban water in China. The impact of climate change on the water cycle and resource changes in the Eastern Monsoon Region of China (EMRC) is one of major issue for adaptation and water security in China, and also a case study for "Panta Rhei" in China. The summary for the achievements supported by the National Key Basic Research and Development Program (2010CB428400) in China will be presented, where the major research focuses are detection and attribution, extreme floods and droughts, and adaptation of water resources management. It is shown that water cycling and water resource changes in the EMRC are rather complicated as the region is impacted by natural changes relating to the strong monsoon influence and also by climate change impacts caused by CO2 emissions due to anthropogenic forcing. To ensure water security and sustainability, it is urgently necessary to take adaptive countermeasures and reduce the vulnerability of water resources and associated risks. Besides climate change issue, urban water issue was addressed, which related to the sponge city construction. Key points for urban water system are that: (1) traditional urban water system is only focus on water supply and sewage treatment plant. The challenge is how to improve our understanding to Sponge Urban Construction from real system ? It would be improved as the concept of water system issue for IAHS -Panta Rhei; (2) One of solution will be the version 5.0 for Urban Water Cycling System, i.e. Urban water system V5.0 that integrated multiple scale urban system including the local scale measures (such as, LID), middle scale measures (i.e., drainage network, gray infrastructure) and also large scale measures (i.e., River system etc.).
Professor Chongyu XU, University of Oslo, Norway
Chong-Yu Xu, Professor of Hydrology at the Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo,Norway. Fellow of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Fellow of Norwegian Academy of Technological Sciences. Honorary professor of Hohai University.His fields of interest and present research activities focus on Hydrological modelling at global,regional and catchment scales; Regional evapotranspiration and its role in linking climatic and hydrological system; Hydrological impact of climate and environment changes at global, regional and catchment scales, Uncertainty analysis and time series analysis.
He served/serves as adjunct Professor at Uppsala University in Sweden and several universities/institutions in Canada and China including Nanjing University, Sun Yat-sen University, Wuhan University, Hohai University and Chinese Academy of Sciences. He served as Overseas Assessor for the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He has been awarded WMO Research Awards for Young Scientists, and Outstanding Overseas Chinese Scholars Awards, etc. He is currently the Editor for international journal of “Hydrology Research”, and Associate Editor of several journals including “Journal of Hydrology”. He has an h-index of 56 in the Web of Science, and an h-index of 68 in Google Scholar. He received Web of Science Highly Cited Researcher Award in 2017 and 2018. He is an Expert reviewer of IPCC WG-I AR5 report and expert reviewer of IPCC WG II AR5 report.
Title: Water Resources Management in a Changing world – Moving from conflict to cooperation
Secretary-General of UN António Guterres tells the Security Council that three-quarters of UN Member States share rivers or lake basins with their neighbours. There are more than 270 internationally shared river basins, which serve as the primary source of fresh water for approximately 40 per cent of the world’s population, including the Nile, the Indus, the Ganges, the Euphrates-Tigris, and the Mekong. Water resources management is the vector sum of a progression of legislation, policies, regulations, engineering practice, and institutional traditions. Various kinds of water resources systems have been developed to support control and efficient uses of water resources for humankinds worldwide. Sustainable water management needs a careful analysis on water availability, water demands and environmental impact. Water can be a catalyst for cooperation or the root of the conflict inside nations or at the nation-state level with nations competing over transboundary water resources, as a result of numerous mega-trends including climate change, rapid economic and population growth, urbanization, and mismanagement. This talk starts from a brief description of key issues of water management, requirement of sustainable water management, and then discusses the state-of-the art of assessment of available water resources at regional and basin scales under current and changing environment, and ends with identification of a number of challenges and research priorities.
Professor Jianyun ZHANG, Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, China
Jianyun Zhang, Dr., Prof., is a leading Chinese specialist of hydrology and water resources. He graduated with a BE degree in hydrology from Hohai University of China in 1982, and obtained his P.h.D. degree in civil and environmental engineering from the National University of Ireland in 1996. He was President of Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute during April 2006- January 2019, and Chief Engineering and Deputy Director General of the Bureau of Hydrology of the Chinese Ministry of Water Resources (MWR) during 1998-2006. He is currently D.G. of the Research Center for Climate Change, MWR, and Chairman of the Chinese National Committee for IAHS. He is also Editor in Chief for the journals, Advances in Water Science, and Hydro-Science and Engineering. Prof. Zhang has been long engaged in the studies of hydrology and water resources management, flood forecasting and mitigation, climate change adaptation, and hydro-informatics. He has published 6 monographs and 1 translated works, and over 200 papers in high-profile journals. He was elected Academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering in 2009 and became Fellow of the British Royal Academy of Engineering in 2014.
Title: Water Resource Management in the context of Climate Change
The presentation is firstly to review natural features of China’s water resources, it is a country poor of water, short of water and with high consumption, and a country increasingly serious hydro-environment pollution & ecosystem degradation with fast socio-economic development. Secondly, there are many observation records of climate change, such as the changes of tempreture and precipitation, the surface tempreture rosed 0.9-1.5 °C in the last 100 years, with higher rising trend of 0.23°C per decade in the last 40years, and precipitation reduced 5-10% in north regions last 30-40 years. Climate changes have evident impacts on water cycle and water resources, includung the river flows reduced remarkably in north rivers, increasing the water cosumption, sea-level rising, and more extreme events, those impacts will aggravate the water shortage and degenerate the ecosystem. Third, for coping the climate change, the water resources management should be moved from the intergarted management into the adapted mamagement, for example, to setup a water saving socity and enhance water resources management, to reduce the water demand on one hand, and transfer water and divert water between basins to ease severe water scarcity in the north. The South-to-North Water Diversion transfers water from the Yangtze and the Huai in south China to the Yellow and the Hai rivers in the north, enhancing the country’s capability of regulating and supplying water by forming a national water network combining four major basins of China on another hand. In additon, unconventional water resources, like rain water, reclaimed water, desalinated sea water, are put into full use to further strengthen its water supply capacity. Last but not least, the Most Stringent Water Management policy has been installed since 2012, setting up “three red lines” which are thresholds for the control of water consumption, water use efficiency and water quality. For over exploitation and severe pollution, China introduced its river/lake chief system, making executive chiefs of each level of government accountable for the protection of water resources and restoration of ecological environment.